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Language isolate




Nouns table

gloss layer stem-final segment basic possessed
broth lexeme consonant rur ruri
broth suffix consonant zero i
buttocks lexeme consonant osor osoro
buttocks suffix consonant zero o
foot lexeme consonant cikir cikiri
foot suffix consonant zero i
forehead lexeme consonant kiputur kiputuru
forehead suffix consonant zero u
hair lexeme consonant otop otopi
hair suffix consonant zero i
hand lexeme consonant tek teke
hand suffix consonant zero e
house lexeme vowel cise cisehe
house suffix vowel zero he
knee lexeme consonant kokkasap kokkasapa
knee suffix consonant zero a
mouth lexeme vowel caro caroho
mouth suffix vowel zero ho
nose lexeme vowel etu etuhu
nose suffix vowel zero hu
relative lexeme vowel apa apaha
relative suffix vowel zero ha
tooth lexeme consonant imak imaki
tooth suffix consonant zero i
village lexeme consonant kotan kotanu
village suffix consonant zero u
younger sister lexeme consonant tures turesi
younger sister suffix consonant zero i

Ainu notes

Around 50 nouns have distinct possessed forms that mark inalienable possession:

ku tekehe rekut puyehe
I hand.POSSESSED throat hole.POSSESSED
‘my hand’ ‘throat opening’

With vowel-final stems the possessed form takes the suffix -hV, with consonant final stems -V(hV) (the second -hV portion appears to be optional). With vowel-final stems the quality of V matches that of the stem-final vowel. With consonant-final stems it is at least in part lexically specified.


Refsing, Kirsten. 1986. The Ainu language: the morphology and syntax of the Shizunai dialect. Aarhus: Univ. Press