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Language isolate




Verbs table

gloss layer stem phonology icpl cpl pfv prf
crouch lexeme m-final sumboro sumbo sumboro sumboro sumbo
crouch suffix m-final rVrV rV rVrV rV
eat lexeme V final dija dija dija dii
eat suffix V final a a a zero
grill lexeme siwɔ siwɔ siwɔ siwɔ
grill suffix zero zero zero zero
hear lexeme V final no nore no no
hear suffix V final zero rV zero zero
hit lexeme velar or r-final degɛ degɛ degɛ degu
hit suffix velar or r-final V V V u
meet lexeme nasalized vowel final pur̃a punda puuⁿ puuⁿ
meet suffix nasalized vowel final rV nrV zero zero
run lexeme tigiri tigiri tigiri tigɛ
run suffix ri ri ri V
scrub lexeme gijara gija gija gija
scrub suffix rV zero zero zero
split lexeme n-final gʷɛndɛ gʷɛndɛ gʷɛndi gʷɛndi
split suffix n-final rV rV ri ri
weed lexeme n-final punda punda pundara pundi
weed suffix n-final rV rV rVrV ri

Bangime notes

  1. Following Hantgan (2013), verb morphology here is analyzed according to a somewhat abstract phonological representation. The main points are:
    • /r/ assimilates to the preceding segment:
      • nasalized vowel + /r/ → nasalized /r/
      • /m/ + /r/ → /mb/
      • /n/ + /r/ → /nd/
    • the vowel represented as V is GENERALLY predictable from the root vowel: the general rule is that with mid vowels it harmonizes in height and backness (compare the non-prf forms deg-ɛ 'hit' and sog-ɔ 'close'), otherwise -a is found (daɣ-a 'shake', pug-a 'wash'). But vowel final verbs (all with mid-vowel roots) follow a different rule: these show a sort of vowel polarity: compare the completive forms no-re 'hear' and pe-ro 'put'. But from Hantgan's data it appears there are also some lexical exceptions to these generalizations.
  2. The m-final verbs such as 'crouch' (all intransitive) display total reduplication in the perfective.


Hantgan, Abby. 2013. Aspects of Bangime phonology, morphology, and morphosyntax. PhD thesis, Indiana University.