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Trans-New Guinea




Verbs table

gloss layer stem phonology 1 sg pst prf 2 sg pst prf 3 sg pst prf 1 sg pst imprf 2 sg pst imprf 3 sg pst imprf 1 sg prs 2 sg prs 3 sg prs 1 sg fut 2 sg fut 3 sg fut 1 pl pst prf 2 pl pst prf 3 pl pst prf 1 pl pst imprf 2 pl pst imprf 3 pl pst imprf 1 pl prs 2 pl prs 3 pl prs 1 pl fut 2 pl fut 3 pl fut
come lexeme bol bol bol bolyai bolyaʔ bolyaʔ bolaiʔ bolaʔ bolaʔ boldaiʔ boldaʔ boldaʔ bol boliy boliy bolyauʔ bolyaʔay bolyaʔay bolauʔ bolay bolay bolam boldaʔay boldaʔay
come suffix zero zero zero yai yaʔ yaʔ aiʔ daiʔ daʔ daʔ new neʔiy neʔiy neʔyauʔ neʔyaʔay neʔyaʔay neʔauʔ neʔay neʔay neʔam neʔdaʔay neʔdaʔay
eat lexeme ʔ-final ney nam nam neʔyai neʔyaʔ neʔyaʔ neʔaiʔ neʔaʔ neʔaʔ neʔdaiʔ neʔdaʔ neʔdaʔ zero iy iy yauʔ yaʔay yaʔay auʔ ay ay am daʔay daʔay
eat suffix ʔ-final y m m yai yaʔ yaʔ aiʔ daiʔ daʔ daʔ w iy iy yauʔ yaʔay yaʔay auʔ ay ay am daʔay daʔay

Bargam notes

  • Syncretism of 2/3 subject person throughout, but object prefixes distinguish 1, 2 & 3 in sg:
    1sg i-
    2sg ni-
    3sg Ø
    pl gi-
  • Stem alternation involves /e/ > /a/ before a final C in 2/3 person.


Hepner, Mark. 2007. Bargam grammar sketch. Ms, S.I.L.