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Language isolate




Verbs table

gloss layer 1 sg 3 > 1 sg 1 pl 3 > 1 pl 3 > 2 sg 2 sg 2sg > 1 2 pl 2 pl > 1 3 > 2 pl 3
(i-stem) prefix ˀi čʰu ya čʰa mi mi me qʰu qʰo qʰa hi
(u-stem) prefix yu čʰu ya čʰa mu mu me qʰu qʰo qʰa hu
(a-stem) prefix ye čʰa ya čʰa ma ma me qʰa qʰo qʰa ha
(e-stem) prefix ye čʰo ya čʰa me me me qʰo qʰo qʰa he
(o-stem) prefix yo čʰo ya čʰa mo mo me qʰo qʰo qʰa ho

Chimariko notes

  • One class of verbs (Jany 2009: 100-2) has suffixes instead (directly after root, before tense/aspect); basically the same shape as the prefixes, but not much information is given about them.
  • Pronominal prefixes directly precede stem, except in one of the two types of negatives, x-V...-na, where 'V' stands for the underlying thematic vowel. This in turn affects inflection in two ways:
    • 1sg subject and 3rd person prefixes are deleted before negative x, presumably leading to syncretism of those values.
    • x-e..., x-i... → x-o..., x-u..., except where preceded by 2sg m-, imperative sg n-, or 1st person object forms in -e- (Jany 2009: 36). (But Jany states that V assimilates to vowel of the prefix; it's not clear how these rules should be ordered.)


Jany, Carmen. 2009. Chimariko Grammar: Areal and Typological Perspective. Berkeley: University of California Press.