Skip to content







Nouns table

gloss layer sg pl
house prefix zero zero
house lexeme tòŋà
house suffix1 zero a
house suffix2 zero zero
antelope prefix zero zero
antelope lexeme urumo
antelope suffix1 zero o
antelope suffix2 zero zero
story prefix zero zero
story lexeme àldiŋa
story suffix1 zero ŋa
story suffix2 zero zero
caterpillar prefix zero zero
caterpillar lexeme sùùŋò
caterpillar suffix1 zero ŋo
caterpillar suffix2 zero zero
river prefix zero zero
river lexeme ròò ròota
river suffix1 zero ta
river suffix2 zero zero
field prefix zero zero
field lexeme rèi rèito
field suffix1 zero to
field suffix2 zero zero
spear prefix zero zero
spear lexeme koor koori
spear suffix1 zero i
spear suffix2 zero zero
mouse prefix n k
mouse lexeme nuum kuumi
mouse suffix1 zero i
mouse suffix2 zero zero
cow prefix zero k
cow lexeme uu kùù
cow suffix1 zero zero
cow suffix2 zero zero
beer prefix zero k
beer lexeme kirà
beer suffix1 zero a
beer suffix2 zero zero
water prefix zero k
water lexeme kòrò
water suffix1 zero o
water suffix2 zero zero
ear prefix d k
ear lexeme dilo kilo
ear suffix1 zero zero
ear suffix2 zero zero
eye prefix n k
eye lexeme nuŋi kuŋi
eye suffix1 zero zero
eye suffix2 zero zero
shoe prefix d k
shoe lexeme daulaŋ kaula
shoe suffix1 a a
shoe suffix2 ŋ zero
louse prefix n k
louse lexeme ninaŋ kina
louse suffix1 a a
louse suffix2 ŋ zero
bed.bug prefix d k
bed.bug lexeme dèinòŋ kèinò
bed.bug suffix1 o o
bed.bug suffix2 ŋ zero
human.male prefix d k
human.male lexeme dèè kèà
human.male suffix1 zero a
human.male suffix2 zero zero
root prefix d k
root lexeme dliŋ kliŋo
root suffix1 zero o
root suffix2 zero zero
granary prefix n k
granary lexeme nunùm kunùmà
granary suffix1 zero a
granary suffix2 zero zero
Balanites.aegyptiaca prefix d k
Balanites.aegyptiaca lexeme dei keiŋò
Balanites.aegyptiaca suffix1 zero ŋo
Balanites.aegyptiaca suffix2 zero zero
elder.sister prefix d k
elder.sister lexeme dàda kàdaŋa
elder.sister suffix1 zero ŋa
elder.sister suffix2 zero zero
sauce prefix d k
sauce lexeme duu kuuto
sauce suffix1 zero to
sauce suffix2 zero zero
porcupine prefix d k
porcupine lexeme dèwèr kèwèrtà
porcupine suffix1 zero ta
porcupine suffix2 zero zero
snake prefix d k
snake lexeme dutù kuti
snake suffix1 zero i
snake suffix2 zero zero
tail prefix d k
tail lexeme dàwi kàwintò
tail suffix1 zero nto
tail suffix2 zero zero
razor prefix d k
razor lexeme daali kaalinta
razor suffix1 zero nta
razor suffix2 zero zero
new prefix d k
new lexeme diwwo kiwwolà
new suffix1 zero
new suffix2 zero zero

Fur notes


  • Number marking involves largely independent systems of prefixes and suffixes. Case (not represented here) is marked by phrasal enclitics.


  • The representation of the verbal system in the database is based on Waag (2000). Her classification is based on the suffixation pattern. Only those patterns explicitly instantiated by illustrations of actual forms are shown here; the missing ones can be assumed to be minor variants (e.g. her chart on p. 173 suggests there should be verbs with an imperfective suffix -ɛl and a perfective suffix -ola, but this is not mentioned in the text, nor are any examples given).
  • The stem alternation between the 3rd person (singular, and plural non-human) stem and the rest (1st and 2nd person, and 3rd person human) is quite diverse. Assuming that the 3rd person stem (always unprefixed) is basic, the other stem is derived by deletion of the initial consonant, methathesis, vowel deletion or even suppletion. It appears that only ʔ-initial verbs fail to undergo an alternation.
  • Verbs may also undergo a stem alternation between imperfective and perfective stem, typically involving -ATR ~ +ATR in the root vowel, though other alternations are possible as well, including suppletion. This is not systematically discussed in relation to the suffixal classes, and so is not represented in the database; it is likely that the aspectual stem alternation is independent of suffix class.
  • Tone represents another potential aspect of inflection. Although there are verbs that maintain a fixed tone throughout the paradigm, may undergo alternations, apparently falling into many different inflection classes. But Waag (2000) does not discuss or classify tonal paradigms separately, because '...the variety of tone is such that the amount of data is not sufficient to distinguish between rules and exceptions.' (p. 172). Indeed, no two verbs illustrated in the database that have a tonal alternation display the same pattern. Therefore tone is not represented here. One generalization though is worth pointing out: the partition of the agreement paradigm exemplified by the stem alternations (see above) is maintained by tone, i.e. within any TAM value, 3rd person (singular, and plural non-human) forms will always share the same tone, and the rest (1st and 2nd person, and 3rd person human) will always share the same tone.
  • Prefixes are in general always the same across different verbs, though in some cases it appears that -a- is inserted between the prefix consonant and stem. Since the addition of this vowel is accompanied by a stem alternation (typically shortening of the stem), this phenomenon has been subsumed here under the notion of stem alternation.


Jakobi, Angelika. 1990. A Fur Grammar: Phonology, Morphophonology, and Morphology. Hamburg: Helmut Buske Verlag.

Waag, Christine. 2010. The Fur verb and its context. Cologne: Rüdiger Köppe.