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Nouns table

gloss layer erg nom acc dat loc all abl
water lexeme wabudawanyi wabudanyi wabudana wabudarri
water stem #stem #stem #stem #stem #stem #stem #stem
water suffix wanyi zero zero nyi na rri nanyi
that lexeme nanangini nanankanyi nananyina nanankurri nanamunanyi
that stem #stem #stem #stem #stem #stem #stem #stem
that suffix ngini zero zero nkanyi nyina nkurri munanyi
we (excl) lexeme nurru nurru nurranya nurrungi nurrunbu nurrundurri
we (excl) stem #stemA #stemA #stemB #stemA #stemA #stemA #stemA
we (excl) suffix zero zero nya ngi nbu ndurri nanyi
I lexeme ngayu ngayu ngana ngaki ngakindu ngakinburri ngakindunanyi
I stem #stemA #stemA #stemB #stemC #stemC #stemC #stemC
I suffix zero zero zero zero ndu nburri ndunanyi

Verbs table

gloss layer unm purp sub ss ds irr
make (1) lexeme yabimba yabimbiji yabimbijiwa yabimbijina yabimbikurri yabimbikanyi
make (1) suffix mba mbiji mbijiwa mbijina mbikurri mbikanyi
throw (1) lexeme janyba janybiji janybijiwa janybijina janybikurri janybikanyi
throw (1) suffix ba biji bijiwa bijina bikurri bikanyi
walk (2A) lexeme jilajba jilaji jilajiwa jilajina jilakurri jilakanyi
walk (2A) suffix jba ji jiwa jina kurri kanyi
uncover (2B) lexeme dulaba dulaji dulajiwa dulajina dulakurri dulakanyi
uncover (2B) suffix ba ji jiwa jina kurri kanyi
fall (2C) lexeme yirrba yirrji yirrjiwa yirrjina yirrkurri yirrkanyi
fall (2C) suffix ba ji jiwa jina kurri kanyi
sleep (3) lexeme kuluka kulukanki kulukankiwa kulukankina kulukankurri kulukankanyi
sleep (3) suffix zero nki nkiwa nkina nkurri nkanyi

Garrwa notes


  • Class 1 verbs include the stem-forming element --mbV attached to roots. --mba is used for unmarked form of verbs, -mbi is used for inflected forms. Where the root ends with a nasal, the --m- is deleted. Only class 1 verbs have nasal-final roots (-ny and -n).
  • Class 2A: -j occurs in all inflections, inc. unmarked form
  • Class 2B: /j/ appears in inflected forms but not unmarked forms
  • Class 2C: set of roots that end with /rr/ or /l/, no --j stem affix in any inflection
  • Class 3: root form as unmarked form


Mushin, Ilana. 2012. A grammar of (Western) Garrwa. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton.