Skip to content







Verbs table

gloss layer realis irrealis injunctive
caress lexeme kasiwa
caress suffix wa wi ware
cry lexeme nua
cry suffix ua ue uema
have blisters lexeme phurane
have blisters suffix ane ae aema
hit lexeme bia
hit suffix ia e ema
leave lexeme pitsapa
leave suffix pa pae pare
make lexeme exana
make suffix na nae nare
plant lexeme uba
plant suffix ba bi bare
sew lexeme horoka
sew suffix ka kae karea
spread legs lexeme bitsata
spread legs suffix ta tsi re
taste lexeme pahane
taste suffix ne ni nere

Guahibo notes

  • Individual verbs in -ne are said to show further irregularities in their formation, but Queixalos (1995: 222) does not provide details.
  • Queixalos (1995) refers to the two verbal moods as factuel and virtuel (in French), for which realis and irrealis are used here.
  • The realis and irrealis serve as a base for further affixation, which however appears to be the same for all verbs.
  • The different classes of verbs appear to be arbitrary, not determined by semantics or phonology (pp. 218, 244-46). However, there is a relationship to aspect and affectedness, as well as various derivational processes, all of which Queixalos treats as lexical rather than inflectional.


Queixalos, Francisco. 1995. Grammaire sikuani. PhD thesis, University of Paris IV.