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Jamul Tiipay

Jamul Tiipay





Verbs table

gloss layer stem phonology 1 pst 2 pst 3 pst imp
be big lexeme C-initial aʔtay metay kwetay
be big prefix C-initial me kwe ke
be fat lexeme C-initial aʔshay meshay weshay
be fat prefix C-initial me we ke
run lexeme C-initial naw menaw wenaw kenaw
run prefix C-initial zero me we ke
sing lexeme C-initial cheyaw mecheyaw cheyaw kecheyaw
sing prefix C-initial zero me zero ke
walk lexeme V-initial ʔamp mamp wamp kamp
walk prefix V-initial ʔ m w k

Jamul Tiipay notes

  • With C-initial stems, Miller (2001: 136) states that 3rd person we- occurs with root-initial stems (a minority of verbs), while zero occurs elsewhere (i.e. where there is a derivational prefix, though note that these are unproductive and frequently unanalyzable; p. 52f). However, there are also a number of verbs without any evidence of having a derivational prefix which still take a zero prefix, and there is also a verb with an identifiable prefix which takes we-.
  • The 1st person allomorphy found with 'be big' and 'be fat', as well as with verbs that take an incorporated nominal t- or ta- (p. 139). There are a few other irregularities that occur with one or two verbs that are not shown in the database.
  • Transitive verbs expand the paradigm illustrated here with forms distinguishing the person of subject and object (forms with a 3rd person object are like the intransitives), but allomorphy is still restricted to the 1st and 3rd person (+ 3rd person object) forms.
  • Verbs may also mark plural subject, and in some cases distributive action as well, by a stem alternation. The system is highly irregular, with many different morphophonological processes which themselves may be combined (p. 101)

    1. Plural prefix a-
    2. Any number of lexical prefixes
    3. Plural prefix ch-
    4. Either of plural prefixes n- or t-
    5. Any number of lexical prefixes
    6. Plural prefix uu-
    7. Root (with or without length ablaut of the root vowel)
    8. Lexical suffix, or plural suffix -ch or -p
    9. Plural suffix -a

    Miller (2001) treats this as a derivational operation, primarily on account of (i) its morphological irregularity, and (ii) the fact that it is optional, unlike the argument markers. However one might interpret them, we have decided not to include these forms in the database, as it would simply be a long list of only tentatively identified morphological operations.


Miller, Amy. 2001. A grammar of Jamul Tiipay. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.