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Verbs table

gloss layer 1 sg dim 2 sg dim 3 sg dim 1 sg aug 2 sg aug 3 sg aug 1 du 2 du 3 du 1 pl 2 pl 3 pl
put into lexeme ikwaricam ikwaricam ikwaricam ikwaricam ikwaricam ikwaricam acikwaricam acikwaricam acikwaricam ecikwaricam acikwaricam nanikwaricam
put into prefix a a a a a a ac ac ac ec ac naN
slip lexeme nanisakatïm nanisakatïm nanisakatïm isakatïm isakatïm isakatïm anisakatïm anisakatïm anisakatïm enisakatïm anisakatïm nanisakatïm
slip prefix naN naN naN a a a aN aN aN eN aN naN
cry lexeme bangkwanam bangkwanam bangkwanam bakwanam bakwanam bakwanam bangkwanam bangkwanam bangkwanam bekwasam bakwasam bakwasam
cry prefix naN naN naN a a a aN aN aN e a a
go lexeme bangkum bangkum bangkum bakum bakum bakum bangkum bangkum bangkum berakum barakum barakum
go prefix naN naN naN a a a aN aN aN era ara ara

Kwerba notes

  • The surface forms are subject to morphophonological rules (such as the deletion of prefix-final consonants before stem-initial consonants) that lead to further conflations, e.g. the collapse of singular and dual forms.
  • Some verbs display a stem alternation for plurality of subject (intransitive) or object (transitive), as with 'cry'. This is not systematically described by de Vries & de Vries (1997), and so is not represented here.
  • The diminutive ~ augmented distinction is sensitive to the size of the object, though in some cases the value seems to be lexically specified (e.g. 'airplane' and 'canoe' are always diminutive; p. 19).


Vries, James A. de and Sandra A. de Vries. 1997. An overview of Kwerba verb morphology. In Andrew Pawley (ed.) Papers in Papuan linguistics 3, pp. 1-35. Canberra: Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, Australian National University.