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Nouns table

gloss layer 1 2 3
grandfather or grandchild lexeme ambue nambue nambue
son lexeme kapore lofu lofu
younger sibling, same sex lexeme womoo moo moo
female’s brother (i.e. opposite-sex sibling) lexeme raroo yalu yalu
male’s sister (i.e. opposite-sex sibling) lexeme wofoli yafoli yafoli

Verbs intrans table

gloss layer real 1 sg real 2 sg real 3 sg real 1 pl real 2 pl real 3 pl irr 1 sg irr 2 sg irr 3 sg irr 1 pl irr 2 pl irr 3 pl
build lexeme tulee tube
build suffix ie lu lee ne mo ne fe le be bile bule bile

Verbs trans table

gloss layer real 3 sg > 1 sg real 3 sg > 2 sg real 3 sg > 3 sg real 3 sg > 1 pl real 3 sg > 2 pl real 3 sg > 3 pl
trans suffix 1 o o fo mo mo te
trans suffix 2 lee lee lee lee lee lee

Kwomtari notes

  • Object suffixes are the same regardless of TAM or subject; they are illustrated here in conjuction with 3sg realis subject suffixes.
  • Kinship terms, not shown here, are suppletive for person of the possessor, though some are clearly morphologically related, suggestive of affixation.


Spencer, Katharine. 2008. Kwomtari grammar essentials. In: Kwomtari phonology and grammar essentials, ed. by Murray Honsberger, Carol Honsberger& Ian Tupper, pp. 53-183. Ukarumpa: SIL-PNG Academic Publications. Online: