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Central Solomons




Agreement table

gloss layer 1 sg 2 sg 3 sg m 3 sg f 3 sg n 1 du 2 du 3 du m 3 du f 3 du n 1 pl 1incl du 1incl pl 2 pl 3 pl
verb subject prefix 1 a ngo o o o le mele lo lo lo e me me me ma
habitual auxiliary subject prefix 1 a ngo lo lo lo le mele lo lo lo le me me me ma
verb object prefix 2 nga ngo a o e le mele a lo le e me me me vo
possessed noun prefix 1 nga ngo o o o le mele lo lo lo e me me me ma
focus marker suffix ngai nu n o fi el mil nal ol gel e mel me mi v
focus marker lexeme fongai finu fin feo zero foel fimil final feol figel foe fomel fome fimi fiv

Interrogative table

gloss layer sg m sg f sg n du pl
which lexeme roin roi roi roil roi
which suffix n zero zero l zero

Nouns table

gloss layer stem phonology sg pl
adze lexeme C-final katil katimal
adze stem C-final #stem1 #stem2
adze suffix C-final zero mal
bean lexeme C-final bin binverav
bean stem C-final #stem1 #stem1
bean suffix C-final zero verav
bell lexeme V-final belo belovil
bell stem V-final #stem #stem
bell suffix V-final zero vil
bicolor parrotfish lexeme C-final foforok foforokaol
bicolor parrotfish stem C-final #stem1 #stem2
bicolor parrotfish suffix C-final zero ol
bone lexeme V-final so'sokio so'sokiv
bone stem V-final #stem1 #stem2
bone suffix V-final zero v
canoe lexeme V-final gaikoko gaikokomal
canoe stem V-final #stem #stem
canoe suffix V-final zero mal
cave lexeme V-final lea leal
cave stem V-final #stem #stem
cave suffix V-final zero l
chicken lexeme V-final kokoroko kokorokoev
chicken stem V-final #stem1 #stem2
chicken suffix V-final zero v
collarbone lexeme V-final kala kalaul
collarbone stem V-final #stem #stem
collarbone suffix V-final zero ul
entrance channel lexeme V-final lake lakev
entrance channel stem V-final #stem #stem
entrance channel suffix V-final zero v
eye of greensnail shell lexeme V-final kua kua
eye of greensnail shell stem V-final #stem #stem
eye of greensnail shell suffix V-final zero zero
floor lexeme V-final fu'loa fu'lovil
floor stem V-final #stem #stem
floor suffix V-final zero vil
forehead lexeme V-final hai hain
forehead stem V-final #stem #stem
forehead suffix V-final zero n
interior suffix C-final zero ul
lee side of island lexeme C-final lalog lalogen
lee side of island stem C-final #stem1 #stem2
lee side of island suffix C-final zero n
moon lexeme V-final kua kuavil
moon stem V-final #stem #stem
moon suffix V-final zero vil
office lexeme C-final ofis ofisavil
office stem C-final #stem1 #stem2
office suffix C-final zero vil
plantation lexeme C-final planteson plantesonaul
plantation stem C-final #stem1 #stem2
plantation suffix C-final zero ul
rafter lexeme V-final hoho hohon
rafter stem V-final #stem #stem
rafter suffix V-final zero n
road lexeme V-final lake lakeav
road stem V-final #stem1 #stem2
road suffix V-final zero v
rumble of thunder lexeme V-final tara tarakaul
rumble of thunder stem V-final #stem1 #stem2
rumble of thunder suffix V-final zero ul
shoe lexeme V-final buti butikal
shoe stem V-final #stem #stem
shoe suffix V-final zero kal
shoulder lexeme C-final fakas fakasaul
shoulder stem C-final #stem1 #stem2
shoulder suffix C-final zero aul
stone lexeme V-final beko bekoul
stone stem V-final #stem #stem
stone suffix V-final zero ul
story lexeme V-final ko’mua ko’muavil
story stem V-final #stem #stem
story suffix V-final zero vil
towel lexeme C-final taol taolkal
towel stem C-final #stem1 #stem1
towel suffix C-final zero kal
truck lexeme C-final ta'rak ta'rakaul
truck stem C-final #stem1 #stem2
truck suffix C-final zero ul
war lexeme V-final wo wo
war stem V-final #stem #stem
war suffix V-final zero zero
wrinkles on hand lexeme V-final kua kuaverav
wrinkles on hand stem V-final #stem #stem
wrinkles on hand suffix V-final zero verav

Verb agreement table

gloss layer 1 sg 2 sg 3 sg m 3 sg f 3 sg n 1 du 2 du 3 du m 3 du f 3 du n 1 pl 1incl du 1incl pl 2 pl 3 pl
subject prefix a ngo o o o le mele lo lo lo e me me me ma
object prefix nga ngo a o e le mele a lo le e me me me vo
subject lexeme
object lexeme

Lavukaleve notes

Verb agreement

Subject person is marked in a limited set of TAM paradigms (future, admonitive, abilative, and, rarely, imperfective); in the present, number only is marked. Object marking, however, is obligatory for transitive verbs.

Possessed noun markers are the same as subject prefixes, while the focussed argument marker has the same pattern (though not quite the same forms) as the object prefix.


Terrill divides nouns into 10 classes on the basis of their plural endings, with most of these having subclasses based on minor variation in the form of the ending. These variants are plausibly treated as stem alternations (an analysis that Terrill adopts for at least some noun types), which is the approach taken here. For example, in Terrill's analysis the form fasakaul 'shoulders' (singular fasak) has the suffix -aul, which is a variant of -ul. In the analysis here, -ul is attached to a stem augmented with -a. In this way Terrill's classes are maintained, and the subclass variation is attributed to the stem.

Another source of subclassification is the dual suffix, which shows variation which appears to be independent of plural suffixation. This variation includes the use of the same for for the dual as for the singular, alongside a distinct plural form. (And apparently the reverse situation exists as well, though much less frequently.) Unfortunately, it is not possible to construct full paradigms for more than a handful of items.


Terril (2003) treats the interrogative 'which' as a distinct word class. Most other interrogatives behave either as nouns (thus, with no gender agreement) or are uninflected.


Terrill, Angela. 2003. A grammar of Lavukaleve. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.