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Verbs table

gloss layer 1 sg 1 sg neg 1 pl 3 sg 3 sg neg weak_imp
gather lexeme yo³a¹wa² yo³nxa³wa² yo³sĩ¹na¹wa² yo³na³1a² yo³xa³wa² yo³txa²hẽ³la²
gather suffix nxa³ sĩ¹na¹ na³ xa³ txa²hẽ³
gather stem tone 3 3 3 3 3 3
bring lexeme so¹na¹wa² son²nxa³wa² so¹sĩ¹na¹wa² so²na³1a² so²nxa³wa² so¹sẽ¹la²
bring suffix na¹ nxa³ sĩ¹na¹ na³ nxa³ sẽ¹
bring stem tone 1 2 1 2 2 1
chop lexeme tau³na¹wa² taun²nxa³wa². tau³sĩ¹na¹wa² tau²na³la² tau²nxa³wa². tau³sẽ¹la²
chop suffix na¹ nxa³ sĩ¹na¹ na³ nxa³ sẽ¹
chop stem tone 3 2 3 2 2 3

Nambikuara notes

  • Kroeker (2001) describes two verb classes which differ partly in their suffix allomorphs, and partly in the fact that one of them undergoes tonal alternations (with tone 2 appearing in association with certain forms). The class with the tonal alternation consists of only open-syllable stems, while the class without the tonal alternations contains all closed syllable stems, but there are also open syllable stems (as shown here). The database reflects the exemplary forms he gives, which are just a fraction of the paradigm, but the other forms cannot be reconstructed with sufficient confidence. (Among other things, the alternation between the final imperfective suffix -wa² and the perfective suffix -la² in the paradigms shown is not explained.)


Kroeker, Menno. 2001. A Descriptive Grammer of Nambikuara. International Journal of American Linguistics 67. 1--87.