Skip to content







Nouns table

gloss layer sg pl
arrow feather lexeme hé.ya′’at tcí’ya′’at
arrow feather affix he- tcí’-
arrow feather stem #stem #stem
bait lexeme xwá’t’ci′sta’ tcí’t’ci′sta’
bait affix xwá’- tcí’-
bait stem #stem #stem
box lexeme áːx̣uyo′’ tcí’x̣uyo′’
box affix á’- tcí’-
box stem #stem #stem
dog lexeme kadèːdo’ káskadeːdo’
dog affix zero <s>
dog stem #stem #redup
ear (óː’olaxat) lexeme óːlaxat tcí’laxat
ear (óː’olaxat) affix ó- tcí’-
ear (óː’olaxat) stem #stem #stem
eye lexeme da’q’oː dadá’q’o
eye affix zero zero
eye stem #stem #redup
fork lexeme tsi′kiːł tsit’è′kiːł
fork affix zero <t’>
fork stem #stem #stem
potato lexeme qaː′wats qáqeː′wats
potato affix zero zero
potato stem #stem #redup+V
root basket lexeme pi′’ko’ pi′’tsko’
root basket affix zero <ts>
root basket stem #stem #stem
shaman lexeme ü′xwałoː′la’ tcí’iłoː′la’
shaman affix ü′xwa- tcí’-
shaman stem #stem #stem

Quileute notes

  • What is called here a noun plural is actually a distributive form, though Andrade (1933-38: 190) notes that at the time of his writing, younger speakers were using these forms as ordinary plurals, presumably under the influence of English.
  • There are essentially two types of plural formation.
    • One is reserved for nouns with any of the three stem formatives that are found throughout both the nominal and verbal lexicon: he-, ó- and á'-, which Andrade speculates may once have been demonstratives (but no longer are). Nouns in addition may be formed with an intial ü′xwa- or xwá'-, which are transparently related to corresponding demonstratives. In all these cases the prefixed element is replaced by tcí'- in the plural, itself related to a "demonstrative that refers to an object that is not present, but is known by previous, direct experience p. 185).
    • Nouns that lack these formatives form their plurals through reduplication or infixation, or both.

Orthographic notes

  • Andrade's orthography is preserved here; note that [ł] (barred l) is voiceless, and a prime symbol indicates mid-level tone.


Andrade, Manuel J. 1933-38. Quileute. In Franz Boas (ed.) Handbook of American Indian Languages, vol. 3, pp. 149-292. Glückstadt: J.J. Augustin.