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Verbs trans table

gloss layer 1sg>3 2sg>3 3>3 RCP 1pl>3 2pl>3 1sg>2sg 3>2sg 1pl>2sg 2sg>1sg 3>1sg 2pl>1sg 1sg>2pl 3>2pl 1pl>2pl 2sg>1pl 3>1pl 2pl>1pl
leave lexeme cwíni cwínš cwitə́gʷəl cwínyəɬ cwinyálə cwincə́y cwíncyəɬ cwincyálə cwitíwɬ cwitiw’íɬyəɬ cwitíwɬ cwitiwiɬyálə
leave suffix 1 zero zero zero əgʷəl zero zero c c c iwiɬ iwiɬ iwiɬ iwiɬ iwiɬ iwiɬyaləh
leave suffix 2 i əš zero zero yəɬ yálə i zero yəɬ š zero yaləh i zero yəɬ š zero iwiɬyaləh
see lexeme cyəhísi cyehísš cyə́s cyehísyəɬ cyehísyál’ə cyehsiw’ə́y cyehsíw’s cyehsw’ə́y’əɬ cyehsíw’ə́šš cyehsíwš cyehsíw’əšyál’ə cyehsiw’íɬi cyehsíw’ɬ c yehsiwíɬš cyehsíw’ɬ cyəhsiwiɬyálə
see suffix 1 zero zero zero gʷəl zero zero wəš wəš wəš iwiɬ iwiɬ iwiɬ iwiɬ iwiɬ iwiɬ
see suffix 2 i əš zero zero yəɬ yáləh i s yəɬ š zero yálə i zero yəɬ š zero yaləh

Tillamook notes

  • The paradigms here are taken from Egesdal & Thompson (1998), who out of necessity provide composite paradigms (e.g. mixing aspect and tense); what is shown here are only the basic perfective forms.
  • The two verb classes differ in their marking of 1st and 2nd person singular objects, roughly ('leave' type) versus ('see' type). Kiyosawa (2004), from a pan-Salish perspective, suggests that the 'see' type suffixes are used for 'the goal or benefactive objects of applicatives, or the causee in causative constructions'. Whether the two classes can in Tillamook can be seen as functionally motivated is another question. The list of verbs provided by Edel (1939: 31) suggests that there is no transparent functional or semantic predictability.


Egesdal, Steven M., and M. Terry Thompson. 1998. A fresh look at Tillamook (Hutéyu) inflectional morphology, in Ewa Czaykowska-Higgins and M. Dale Kinkade (eds), Salish Languages and Linguistics: Theoretical and descriptive perspectives, pp. 235--273. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

Edel, Mary M. The Tillamook Language. 1939. International Journal of American Linguistics 10/1. 1-57.

Kiyosawa, Kaoru. 2004. On the Two Salish Object Agreement Suffixes. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Berkeley Linguistics Society. Online: