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Lower Mamberamo




Nouns table

gloss layer 1 sg 2 sg 3 sg 1 ex pl 1 incl pl 2 pl 3 pl
arm lexeme everaro averaro beraro ami beraro keveraro meveraro teveraro
arm prefix e a zero zero ke me te
canoe lexeme ewaro awaro iwaro ami waro kiwaro miwaro tiwaro
canoe prefix e a i zero ki mi ti

Verbs table

gloss layer a 1 sg 2 sg 3 sg 1 ex pl 1 incl pl 2 pl 3 pl
eat lexeme V-initial ane wane yane amane kane mane tane
eat prefix V-initial zero w y am k m t
fly lexeme C-initial yarove arove dove amirove kirove mirove tirove
fly prefix C-initial ya a zero ami ki mi ti
go lexeme C-initial era ara da amira kira mira tira
go prefix C-initial e a zero ami ki mi ti
hide lexeme C-initial evuene avuene ivuene amevuene kevuene mevuene tevuene
hide prefix C-initial e a i ame ke me te
run lexeme C-initial isayo asayo isayo amisayo kisayo misayo tisayo
run prefix C-initial i a i ami ki mi ti
stare lexeme C-initial ereve wareve yareve amareve kareve mareve tareve
stare prefix C-initial e wa ya ama ka ma ta

Warembori notes

The different classes of pronominal markers on nouns and verbs are arbitrary (lexically specified).


  • The plural possesive prefixes have both Ci- and Ce- allomorphs, but their distribution is different: class I strongly prefers Ci-, while for class II it is less predictictable. That means in theory we might expect the following distribution, illustrated here with 3rd singular and plural:
    Ia Ib IIa IIb
    3s i- i- Ø Ø
    3pl ti- te- ti- te-
  • When used for inalienable possession, these are prefixes, when usd for alienable possession they are proclitic. (The difference can be observed through phonological effects on a following segment.)

Phonological notes

/d/ is regularly realized as /r/ intervocalically.


Donohue, Mark. 1999. Warembori grammar sketch. Ms, University of Sydney.