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Nouns table

gloss layer nom sg pred sg acc2 sg acc1 sg ins sg dat sg loc sg abl sg prol sg com sg nom pl pred pl acc2 pl acc1 pl ins pl dat pl loc pl abl pl prol pl com pl nom sg poss pred sg poss acc2 sg poss acc1 sg poss ins sg poss dat sg poss loc sg poss abl sg poss prol sg poss com sg poss nom pl poss pred pl poss acc2 pl poss acc1 pl poss ins pl poss dat pl poss loc pl poss abl pl poss prol pl poss com pl poss
domesticated deer suffix zero lek zero gele le ŋin ge get gen n'e pul plek pul pulgele ple pulŋin pulge pulget pulgen puln'e gi gi gi dejle dele din dege deget degen den'e pki pki pki ptejle ptele ptin ptege pteget ptegen pten'e
non E-final suffix zero lek zero gele le ŋin ge get gen n'e pe pelek pe pegele pele peŋin pege peget pegen pen'e gi gi gi dejle dele din dege deget degen den'e pegi pegi pegi pedejle pedele pedin pedege pedeget pedegen peden'e
domesticated deer lexeme a:če a:čelek a:če a:čegele a:čele a:čeŋin a:čege a:čeget a:čegen a:čen'e a:čepul a:čeplek a:čepul a:čepulgele a:čeple a:čepulŋin a:čepulge a:čepulget a:čepulgen a:čepuln'e a:čegi a:čedegele a:čedele a:čedin a:čedege a:čedeget a:čedegen a:čeden'e

Verbs table

gloss layer valence 1 sg 2 sg 3 sg 1 pl 2 pl 3 pl 1 sg fut 2 sg fut 3 sg fut 1 pl fut 2 pl fut 3 pl fut focus 1 sg focus 2 sg focus 3 sg focus 1 pl focus 2 pl focus 3 pl focus 1 sg fut focus 2 sg fut focus 3 sg fut focus 1 pl fut focus 2 pl fut focus 3 pl fut imp 2 sg imp 3 sg imp 1 pl imp 2 pl imp 3 pl diff converb 1 diff converb 2 diff converb 3 sg diff converb 3pl
make lexeme tr a: a:mek a:m a:j a:met a:ŋa: a:me a:me a:mele a:l a:met a:ŋile a:k a:gen a:ge a:ŋik a:ŋigen
make suffix tr zero mek m j met ŋa: t temek tem tej temet ŋitem me me mEle l met ŋile teme teme temle tel temet ŋitemle k gen ge ŋik ŋigen luge luge dege ŋidege
sit lexeme intr modoje modojek modoj modojel’i modojemet modoŋi modol modol modol modol modol modoŋil modok modogen modoge modoŋik modoŋigen
sit suffix intr je jek j jEl’i jEmet ŋi tEje tEjek tEj tEjl’i tEjmet ŋitej l l l l l ŋil tEl tEl tEl tEl tEl ŋitel k gen ge ŋik ŋigen luge luge dege ŋidege

Yukaghir notes


  • 'Argument' focus verb forms are used in contexts where the intranstive subject or transitive object is in focus (Maslova (2003) distinguishes them as 'subject focus' and 'object focus' forms, respectively).
  • There are additional non-finite verb forms not shown here, but they are all distinct from each other and do not appear to differ between transitive and intransitive verbs.


  • The possessive paradigm is used for possessed nouns; in the following example, 'eye' is possessed by 'his wife' (Maslova 2003: 79):

    ta:t nume-ŋin qon-delle tude terike-gele aŋďe-de-jle ulte-m
    then house-DAT go-SS:PFV his wife-ACC eye-POSS-ACC bind-TR:3SG
    ‘Then he went home and bound his wife's eyes.’

    Plural possessive forms refer to plurality of the possessor or possessed (or both).

  • Maslova (2003) distinguishes an 'accusative' from the 'pronominal accusative'; these are called 'acc1' and 'acc2' here. Accusative 1 is found when the subject is 3rd person, accusative 2 when the subject is 1st or 2nd person.

  • Some of the case-number values show alternative forms (not lexically specified); only one (the most common one) is shown here.

Morphophonology of nouns

  • The symbol E indicates a morphophoneme with the following properties (see §3.3.4 in Maslova 2003): in most contexts it is realized as /e/ (under some circumstances related to vowel harmony as /o/), unless the preceding syllable itself ends in E, in which case it is zero. Significantly, this represents the potential for this alternation pattern, and is not a phonological property as such. For stems ending in /e/ or /o/, it must be lexically specified whether this behaves as E or just as plain /e/ or /o/. Thus, while the suffix allomorphs found with 'elder brother' are phonologically predictable (because the stem ends in /a/), those of 'shoe' and 'domesticated deer' are not:

    non E-final stem
    ‘elder brother’
    non E-final stem
    E-final stem
    ‘domesticated deer’
    nom sg ča:ča: mure a:če
    nom pl ča:ča:-pe mure-pe a:če-pul

    In the database, 'domesticated deer' represents an E-final stem.

  • The /l/-initial nominal suffixes (predicative and instrumental) are realized without the /l/ when suffixed to C-final stems (though note that the /l/ of the acc2 induces an epenthetic vowel instead, e.g. met-ul 'me-acc2'). Suffix-initial /g/ and /d/ are devoiced following a voiceless obstruent following a regular phonological rule.


  • The forms of 'I' stand in for all 1st and 2nd person pronouns, those of 'he/she/it' for 3rd person pronouns.


Maslova, Elena. 2003. A grammar of Kolyma Yukaghir. Berlin: Mouton.